Uterus
Non tumor
Tumor

Author: Nat Pernick, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 12 January 2017, last major update September 2011

Copyright: (c) 2002-2017, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed search: normal [title] uterus

Cite this page: Normal. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://pathologyoutlines.com/topic/uterusnormal.html. Accessed August 21st, 2017.
Definition / general
  • Corpus is upper 2/3 of uterus above level of internal cervical os
  • Uterus is hollow, pear shaped, 40 - 80 g and 7 - 8 cm
  • Peritoneal reflection is lower posteriorly than anteriorly because bladder is anterior; this is used to orient uterus
  • Myometrium has a rich network of blood vessels; arteries are sometimes found within dilated venous channels (Am J Surg Pathol 2002;26:232); myometrium is PLAP positive
  • Width varies from 27 mm in nulliparous women to 32 mm in women with 2+ pregnancies (Obstet Gynecol 2010;116:305)
  • Drains to parametrial, paracervical, internal iliac, external iliac, common iliac, periaortic and inguinal lymph nodes
  • Note: menstruating tissue is replaced by cells from basalis, isthmus and ostio of tubes
  • Before puberty: endometrial tissue is inactive and composed of tubular glands, dense fibroblastic stroma and thin blood vessels
  • After menopause: inactive (no proliferation or secretion), thin, often with cystic cavities lined by flat or cuboidal cells and fibrotic stroma
Anatomical divisions
  • Fundus: cephalad to line connecting the insertion of fallopian tubes
  • Cornua: lateral regions of fundus associated with intramural fallopian tubes
  • Isthmus / lower uterine segment: portion of corpus connecting with cervix
  • Cervix: lower 1/3 of uterus; at and below level of internal cervical os
Diagrams / tables

Images hosted on other servers:

Various diagrams

Gross images

Images hosted on other servers:

Normal - anterior

Posterior

Secretory endometrium

Bifid uterus

Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Uterine cavity: 6 cm long, triangular shape and lined by endometrial mucosa / endometrium, then myometrium, then serosa, which extends to peritoneal reflection
  • Basalis layer is retained; functionalis layer (superficial 1/2 to 2/3) is shed monthly
  • Functionalis is divided into spongiosum (near basalis) and compactum (near surface)
  • Stroma is composed of stromal cells, vessels, stromal granulocytes (T cells, macrophages) and foamy cells
  • May have lymphoid follicles
Microscopic (histologic) images

Images hosted on PathOut server:

Lymphoid aggregate
in proliferative endo-
metrium is a normal
finding, not endometritis

Proliferative endometrium with artifactual changes secondary to curettage (misinterpreted as
endometrial hyperplasia); glands in this field are neither architecturally irregular nor cystically
dilated; ratio of glands to stroma is about normal for a midproliferative endometrium,
and a general orientation of the glands from upper left to lower right is noteworthy



Images hosted on other servers:

Normal endometrium and
cyclin D1 (figures 1A / 1B)