Thyroid gland
Thyroiditis
Infectious thyroiditis

Author: Shahidul Islam, M.D., Ph.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 12 January 2017, last major update March 2009

Copyright: (c) 2003-2017, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: infectious thyroiditis

Related Topic: Tuberculous thyroiditis
Cite this page: Infectious thyroiditis. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://pathologyoutlines.com/topic/thyroidinfectious.html. Accessed October 21st, 2017.
Definition / general
  • Also called acute thyroiditis
  • Via blood or direct seeding from upper respiratory infections, causes sudden onset of pain and glandular enlargement
  • Risk factors: malnourished infant, debilitated elderly, immunosuppression, trauma
  • Often Streptococcus haemolyticus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus; gram negative bacteria associated with trauma; also Pneumocystis jiroveci in HIV+ patients with low CD4 counts (Mycoses 2007;50:443)
Clinical features
Diagnosis
  • Usually based on serologic tests
Case reports
Treatment
  • Drainage, antibiotics, fistulectomy
Gross description
  • Normal or slightly enlarged thyroid gland
  • May have suppurative areas
Gross images

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Aspergillus septic foci

Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Neutrophils, possibly microabscesses and tissue necrosis
  • Fungi are associated with necrosis, acute inflammation and granulomas
Cytology images

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Aspergillus

Nocardia

Stains
  • Gram stain or GMS / PAS may help identify bacteria or fungi; use ISH or IHC for viruses
Differential diagnosis