Graft versus host disease
Reviewer: Mowafak Hamodat MB.CH.B, MSc., FRCPC, Eastern Health, St. Johns (Canada) (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 30 July 2011, last major update July 2011
Copyright: (c) 2002-2011, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
● Important cause of post-bone marrow transplant morbidity; usually occurs 10-30 days after allogeneic bone marrow transplant
● Due to immunocompetent donor lymphocytes reacting against recipient tissues, causing cutaneous, hepatic and intestinal lesions
● Prognosis is related to amount of inflammation
● Initially is a pruritic maculopapular skin rash, often on acral surfaces and pinnae
● May progress to diffuse eruption on trunk and extremities with oral mucosal stomatitis and ulceration
● Chronic GVHD: develops 100 days after transplant (DermNetNZ)
● Early - basal layer vacuolization and necrosis, spongiosis, apoptosis, acantholysis, chronic inflammation of upper dermis with perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate and intraepidermal lymphocytes; follicular involvement is a common feature
● Late stage - lichenoid type: hyperkeratosis, hypergranulosis, irregular acanthosis, basal cell hydropic changes, cytoid body formation, pigment incontinence, and band like lymphohistiocytic infiltrate; in contrast to idiopathic lichen planus, satellite cell necrosis is often present in the early phase of chronic GVHD, and the infiltrate sometimes contains plasma cells and eosinophils
● Late stage of chronic GVHD: characterized by epidermal atrophy, with abolition of ridge pattern and scarring of superficial and deep dermis, with loss of adnexal structures; features are similar to scleroderma
Contributed by Dr. Amy Lynn, Toledo, Ohio
Acute GVHD - various images
Chronic GVHD - various images
● IgM deposition (granular or linear) in basement membrane zone
● Lichenoid chronic GVHD: resembles lichen planus, but LP lacks satellite cell necrosis, plasma cells or eosinophils
● Late stage chronic GVHD: resembles scleroderma, but clinical history is different
● eMedicine, Wikipedia
End of Skin-nontumor > Other dermatoses > Graft versus host disease
This information is intended for physicians and related personnel, who understand that medical information is often imperfect, and must be interpreted in the context of a patient's clinical data using reasonable medical judgment. This website should not be used as a substitute for the advice of a licensed physician.
All information on this website is protected by copyright of PathologyOutlines.com, Inc. Information from third parties may also be protected by copyright. Please contact us at [email protected] with any questions (click here for other contact information).