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Umbilical cord

Torsion / hypercoiling

Reviewers: Mandolin Ziadie, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 29 November 2011, last major update November 2011
Copyright: (c) 2003-2011, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.


● Normal umbilical cord has approximately 1 coil per 5 cm
● The number of coils is related to fetal movement
● Torsion / hypercoiling (> 2 coils per 5 cm) is associated with extremely long cords, twin gestation and cocaine; has increased risk of fetal growth restriction or death
● Associated with fibrosis and loss of Wharton’s jelly (Arch Pathol Lab Med 2000;124:1352)

Gross images

Torsion of umbilical cord

End of Placenta > Umbilical cord > Torsion / hypercoiling

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