Placenta
Placental gross / microscopic abnormalities, nonneoplastic
Retroplacental hematoma with intraplacental extension (abruption)

Author: Mandolin Ziadie, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 13 October 2017, last major update October 2011

Copyright: (c) 2002-2017, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: Retroplacental hematoma abruption

Cite this page: Ziadie, M. Retroplacental hematoma with intraplacental extension (abruption). PathologyOutlines.com website. http://pathologyoutlines.com/topic/placentaretroplacentalhematoma.html. Accessed November 19th, 2017.
Definition / general
  • Hematomas between the basal plate and uterus form due to acute or chronic hemorrhage; if significant ( > 50%), there is an increased risk of fetal death
  • Smaller hematomas pose a risk for vaginal bleeding, oligohydramnios and premature delivery
  • Diagnosis of abruption is clinical; findings in the placenta may not be sufficient
  • Kleihauer-Betke test for fetal maternal hemorrhage is NOT recommended for diagnosis (Arch Pathol Lab Med 1995;119:1032)
Diagrams / tables

Images hosted on other servers:

Diagram

Gross description
  • Loose blood clots or blood clots tenuously adherent to placental floor if acute
  • Remote episodes have brown tan, old fibrin and necrotic tissue at abruption site and adjacent membranous tissue
  • Features of intraplacental extension include pale areas of infarction
Gross images

Images hosted on other servers:

Abruptio placenta with dark red retroplacental blood clot

Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Retroplacental hemorrhage or hematomas associated with diffuse intradecidual hemorrhage, villous stromal hemorrhage / edema, intervillous thrombi or infarction
  • Chronic hemorrhage may also show hemosiderin staining
Microscopic (histologic) images

Images hosted on other servers:

Extensive hemorrhage