Placenta
Placental gross / microscopic abnormalities, nonneoplastic
Hypoxic changes

Author: Mandolin Ziadie, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 13 October 2017, last major update October 2011

Copyright: (c) 2002-2017, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: Hypoxic changes placenta [title]

Cite this page: Ziadie, M. Hypoxic changes. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://pathologyoutlines.com/topic/placentahypoxia.html. Accessed October 23rd, 2017.
Definition / general
  • Any lesion resulting in placental hypoxia can induce downstream effects in the placental villi due to underperfusion of the intervillous space
  • These changes may be seen in pregnancies affected by maternal hypertension or superficial implantation with insufficient vascular remodeling
Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Maternal underperfusion (affecting the intervillous space) is associated with infarction and decidual arteriopathy
  • Other changes include: increased syncytial knotting (Tenney-Parker change), distal villous hypoplasia / accelerated maturation (villi are smaller than normal with finger-like outlines) and villous chorangiosis
  • Fetal hypoxia / anemia / underperfusion (affecting the chorionic villous circulation) results in hemorrhagic endovasculitis / fetal thrombotic vasculopathy
  • Increased numbers of nucleated red cells may be present