Molecular Pathology
Melanoma mutations
HRAS


Author: Joshua Bradish, M.D.(see Authors page)

Editor: Gregory A. Hosler, M.D., Ph.D.

Revised: 1 December 2015, last major update September 2014

Copyright: (c) 2015, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

Cite this page: HRAS. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://pathologyoutlines.com/topic/molecularpathHRAS.html. Accessed March 29th, 2017.
Definition / General
  • HRAS, Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue, is a proto-oncogene located on chromosome 11p
  • This gene encodes for transforming protein 21, which binds GTP for activation and contains intrinsic GTPase activity (Genes Cancer 2011;2:344)
  • HRAS is very similar to NRAS and KRAS in its structure
  • HRAS is involved in both the MAPK pathway and AKT pathway
  • HRAS activates RAF enzymes (ie CRAF or BRAF) in the MAPK pathway
Diagrams / Tables
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HRAS pathway


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Histological features

Molecular / Cytogenetics Description
  • HRAS mutations are most frequently found in codons 12, 13 and 61
  • Amplification of HRAS/11p is also not infrequently identified
  • Amplification and mutations of HRAS are not mutually exclusive (Am J Pathol 2000;157:967)
  • HRAS mutations are associated with Costello syndrome, which is associated with delayed development, mental retardation, cardiomyopathy, coarse facial features, loose skin and a predilection for developing rhabdomyosarcoma, bladder cancer or neuroblastomas
  • Detection of HRAS/11p amplification can be performed using FISH probes
  • Detection of specific HRAS mutations can be performed using PCR assays (Am J Pathol 2000;157:967)
Micro Description
Treatment
  • No specific targeted therapy against HRAS currently exists
  • No mechanisms of resistance have been evaluated
  • No resistance therapies have been evaluated