Liver and intrahepatic bile ducts - nontumor
Viral hepatitis
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)

Author: Komal Arora, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 6 November 2017, last major update May 2012

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PubMed Search: HIV[TI] human immunodeficiency virus[TIAB] hepatitis[TI] liver[TI]

Cite this page: Arora, K. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). PathologyOutlines.com website. http://pathologyoutlines.com/topic/liverHIV.html. Accessed December 16th, 2017.
Definition / general
  • Liver disease is most common non-AIDS related cause of death among HIV+, accounting for 14 - 18% of all deaths and almost half of deaths among hospitalized HIV+ patients (Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010;8:1002, US Department of Veterans Affairs: Liver Disease and Cirrhosis [Accessed 6 November 2017])
  • Often coinfection with atypical mycobacteria (often without granulomas at autopsy), Bartonella henselae (bacillary angiomatosis), CMV, Coccidioides, Cryptococcus, Cryptosporidium (may affect biliary tree), Histoplasma, Pneumocystis
  • Also higher incidence of lymphoma, Kaposi sarcoma, peliosis hepatis
  • High incidence of serologic infection with hepatitis B, although usually no significant liver disease
  • May be associated with noncirrhotic portal hypertension (Ann Hepatol 2009;8:390)
Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Canalicular cholestasis; polarizable material in portal tracts of intravenous drug abusers
  • Children may have bile duct damage and endothelialitis, with portal and lobular infiltrate, resembling graft versus host disease
  • Usually no lymphocytes in portal tract due to leukopenia
Microscopic (histologic) images

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Hepatic macrovesicular and microvesicular
steatosis associated with symptomatic lactic
acidosis syndrome, thought due to nucleoside
analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors