Reviewer: Jaya Ruth Asirvatham M.B.B.S., M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Editor: Sharon Liang, M.D., Ph.D.
Revised: 20 June 2013, last major update May 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
- Cervix uteri: (latin: neck of uterus)
- Lower 1/2 to 1/3 of length of uterus, 2.5 to 3.0 cm long, 2.0 to 2.5 cm in diameter (Wikipedia)
- Cylindrical, connects body of uterus (corpus uteri) to vagina via endocervical canal
- Anteriorly abuts and is separated from bladder by connective tissue; posteriorly is covered by peritoneum that forms lining of cul-de-sac
- Endocervix: relates to endocervical canal, fusiform, 7-8 mm in diameter, with anterior and posterior longitudinal and oblique mucosal ridges (plicae palmatae/arbor vitae uteri)
- Ectocervix (exocervix): vaginal portion of the cervix, convex, flattened anterior-posteriorly, has anterior and posterior lips, is surrounded by fornix (a reflection of vaginal wall)
- External os: opening of endocervical canal into vagina, round in nullipara and slit-like in parous women
- Internal os: opening of endocervical canal into uterine cavity
- Fornix: (latin: arch) recesses of deeper portions of vagina created by protrusion of ectocervix into vagina; anterior, posterior and a lateral fornix on either side of cervix
- Cardinal / Mackenrodts / Lateral cervical ligaments: fibromuscular bands that fan out from lower uterine segment and cervix to lateral pelvic walls and provide main support for cervix
- Uterosacral ligaments: connective tissue surrounding cervix and vagina that extends towards vertebrae
- Lymphatics: cervix is drained by parametrial, internal iliac, obturator and presacral nodes
Sagittal section of local anatomy
Uterus, cervix and vagina
End of Cervix > General > Anatomy (normal)
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