Thyroid gland

Authors: Zubair W. Baloch, M.D., Shahidul Islam, M.D., Ph.D., Ricardo R. Lastra, M.D., Michelle R. Pramick, M.D., Phillip A. Williams, M.D., MSC, Sheren Younes, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 17 August 2015, last major update IN PROGRESS

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Table of contents

General: primary referencesembryologyanatomyhistologyphysiologycytologycytodiagnostic groupsFNA tissue effectscrystalsvariations

Congenital/metabolic anomalies: aplasia/hypoplasiabranchial pouch/cleft anomaliescystic ultimobranchial body remnantscystinosisDiGeorge syndromeheterotopic thyroid tissuelateral aberrant thyroidlymph nodes with thyroid tissuelymphoepithelial cystparasitic noduleparathyroid tissuesolid cell nestsTay-Sachsthymic tissuethyroglossal duct/cyst

Endocrine abnormalities: amiodaronecretinismhyperthyroidismhypothyroidismmyxedema

Thyroiditis: acuteautoimmunefocal lymphocyticHashimoto'sinfectiouslithiumpalpationpost-operativepost-partumradiationRiedel'sSARSsilentsubacute

Bethesda guidelines: adequacydiagnostic categoriesbenignatypia of undetermined significancefollicular neoplasmsuspicious for malignancymalignant

Competency Assessment: introductionnormal glandFNAspecimendiagnosisbenignneoplasmmalignantmolecularpractice monitors

Hyperplasia / goiter: amyloid goiterC cell hyperplasiadyshormonogenetic goiterendemic goiterGraves' diseasesimple and nontoxic multinodular goitersolitary papillary hyperplastic noduletoxic multinodular goiter

Miscellaneous non-neoplastic: black / pigmented thyroidcalcificationKillian-Jamieson diverticulummalakoplakiaplasma cell granulomasarcoidosisteflon

Benign neoplasms: follicular adenomagranular cell tumorhyalinizing trabecular neoplasmlymphangiomaparagangliomapost-operative spindle cell nodulerhabdomyomaRosai-Dorfman diseasesolitary fibrous tumorsolitary thyroid nodule

Thyroid cancer: generalWHO classificationchildren

Papillary thyroid carcinoma: generalcytologychildren
variants: columnar cellcribriform-morulardiffuse folliculardiffuse sclerosingencapsulatedencapsulated follicularfollicularmacrofollicularmicrocarcinomanodular fasciitisoncocyticsolidtall cellWarthin-like

Other thyroid carcinoma: anaplasticCASTLEfollicularHurthle cell (oncocytic) tumorsinsular/poorly differentiatedmedullarymetastasesmucoepidermoidsclerosing mucoepidermoid with eosinophiliaSETTLEsquamous cellwell differentiated NOSwell differentiated of uncertain malignant potential

Other malignancies: angiosarcomahemangiopericytomaLangerhans cell histiocytosislymphomaneuroblastomaplasmacytomasarcomateratoma

Miscellaneous: clear cell changefeatures to reportfrozen sectiongrossingstaging


Index (Alphabetical table of contents)

A-E: acute thyroiditisamiodarone-induced hyperthyroidismamyloid goiteranaplastic carcinomaanatomyangiosarcomaaplasia/hypoplasiaautoimmune thyroiditisBethesda guidelines: adequacyBethesda guidelines: atypia of undetermined significanceBethesda guidelines: benignBethesda guidelines: diagnostic categoriesBethesda guidelines: follicular neoplasmBethesda guidelines: malignantBethesda guidelines: suspicious for malignancyblack / pigmented thyroidbranchial pouch/cleft anomaliesC cell hyperplasiacalcificationCASTLEclear cell changecolumnar cell variant of PTCcretinismcribriform-morular variant of PTCcrystalscystic ultimobranchial body remnantscystinosiscytodiagnostic groupscytologydiffuse follicular variant of PTCdiffuse sclerosing variant of PTCDiGeorge syndromedyshormonogenetic goiterembryologyencapsulated follicular variant of PTCencapsulated variant of PTCendemic goiter

F-N: features to reportFNA tissue effectsfocal lymphocytic thyroiditisfollicular adenomafollicular carcinomafollicular variant of PTCfrozen sectiongranular cell tumorGraves' diseasegrossingHashimoto's thyroiditishemangiopericytomaheterotopic thyroid tissuehistologyHurthle cell (oncocytic) tumorshyalinizing trabecular neoplasmhyperthyroidismhypothyroidisminfectious thyroiditisinsular/poorly differentiated carcinomaKillian-Jamieson diverticulumLangerhans cell histiocytosislateral aberrant thyroidlithium thyroiditislymph nodes with thyroid tissuelymphangiomalymphoepithelial cystlymphomamacrofollicular variant of PTCmalakoplakiamedullary carcinomametastasesmicrocarcinoma variant of PTCmucoepidermoid carcinomamyxedemaneuroblastomanodular fasciitis variant of PTC

O-Z: oncocytic variant of PTCpalpation thyroiditispapillary thyroid carcinoma-childrenpapillary thyroid carcinoma-cytologypapillary thyroid carcinoma-generalparagangliomaparasitic noduleparathyroid tissuephysiologyplasma cell granulomaplasmacytomapost-operative spindle cell nodulepost-operative thyroiditispost-partum thyroiditisprimary referencesradiation thyroiditisrhabdomyomaRiedel's thyroiditisRosai-Dorfman diseasesarcoidosissarcomaSARS thyroiditissclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophiliaSETTLEsilent thyroiditissimple and nontoxic multinodular goitersolid cell nestssolid variant of PTCsolitary fibrous tumorsolitary papillary hyperplastic nodulesolitary thyroid nodulesquamous cell carcinomastagingsubacute thyroiditistall cell variant of PTCTay-Sachsteflon in thyroidteratomathymic tissuethyroglossal duct/cystthyroid cancer-childrenthyroid cancer-generaltoxic multinodular goitervariations of normalWarthin-like variant of PTCwell differentiated carcinoma NOSwell differentiated carcinoma of uncertain malignant potentialWHO classification of thyroid cancer


Primary references:
top

AJCC Cancer Staging Manual (7th ed)
Lloyd: Endocrine Diseases (AFIP Atlas of Nontumor Pathology, 2002, Vol 1)
Rosai: Tumors of the Thyroid Gland (AFIP Atlas of Tumor Pathology, Series 3, Vol 5, 1993)
Websites: PathoPic
Virtual slides: University of Iowa, USCAP, vSlides


Recent Thyroid / Endocrine books

Ali: 2013

Ali: 2009

Baloch: 2014

Felner: 2013

Nikiforov: 2012

Nose: 2012

Rosai: 1993

Rosai: 2015

Sadow: 2015

Wenig: 2015



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