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Table of contents

General: primary references,  embryology,  normal anatomy,  normal histology

Cytology: generalnormal findingsnon-neoplastic lesionsprimary noninvasive urothelial neoplasmsprimary invasive neoplasmssecondary neoplasmsbiomarker testingformat of diagnostic report

Congenital anomalies: AV malformationduplicationectopic prostateexstrophyhypoplasiapatent urachuspersistent cloaca

Acquired non-neoplastic anomalies: amyloidosis,  collagen polyp,  cystocele,  diverticula,  endocervicosis,  endometriosis,  endosalpingiosis,  lithiasis,  obstruction,  pseudocarcinomatous epithelial hyperplasia,  Tamm-Horsfall protein,  treatment effect,  urinary diversion / neobladder

Cystitis: acute,  BK virus,  bullous,  chronic,  cystitis cystica / glandularis,  emphysematous,  eosinophilic,  follicular,  granulomatous,  hemorrhagic,  interstitial,  malakoplakia,  polypoid / papillary,  radiation,  schistosomiasis,  xanthogranulomatous

Metaplasia: intestinal metaplasia,  nephrogenic metaplasia,  squamous metaplasia

Nonurothelial benign tumors: condyloma,  fibroepithelial polyp,  hemangioma,  inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor,  leiomyoma,  neurofibroma,  postoperative granulomas,  post-operative spindle cell nodule,  prostatic-type polyp,  solitary fibrous tumor,  urachal lesions,  villous adenoma

Urothelial nonneplastic lesions: WHO/ISUP classification,  flat hyperplasia,  papillary hyperplasia,  flat lesions with reactive atypia,  flat lesions with atypia of unknown significance,  dysplasia

Urothelial neoplasms-noninvasive: carcinoma in situ,  low grade papillary,  high grade papillary,  papillary neoplasm of low malignant potential,  urothelial papilloma,  inverted urothelial papilloma

Urothelial carcinoma-invasive: WHO/ISUP classification,  general,  endophytic,  large cell neuroendocrine,  lymphoepithelioma-like,  lymphoma-like,  microcystic,  micropapillary,  nested,  plasmacytoid,  rhabdoid,  sarcomatoid,  with glandular differentiation,  with squamous differentiationwith trophoblastic differentiationundifferentiated-generalundifferentiated-large cellundifferentiated-osteoclast rich

Adenocarcinoma: in situgeneralclear cellhepatoidprostaticsignet ringurachal

Other carcinomas: metastasessmall cellsquamous cell

Other tumors: angiosarcoma,  carcinoid,  gastrointestinal stromal tumor/GIST,  germ cell tumor,  leiomyosarcoma,  lymphoma,  melanoma,  osteosarcoma,  paraganglioma,  perivascular epithelioid cell tumor,  plasmacytoma,  rhabdomyosarcoma,  urachal sarcoma

Miscellaneous: stagingfrozen sectionsgrossingfeatures to report-TURBTfeatures to report-cystectomy


Index (Alphabetical table of contents)

A-E: acute cystitis,  adenocarcinoma in situadenocarcinoma generalamyloidosis,  angiosarcoma,  AV malformationBK virus,  bullous cystitis,  carcinoid,  carcinoma in situ,  chronic cystitis,  clear cell adenocarcinomacollagen polyp,  condyloma,  cystitis cystica / glandularis,  cystocele,  cytology-biomarker testingcytology-format of diagnostic reportcytology-generalcytology-non-neoplastic lesionscytology-normal findingscytology-primary invasive neoplasmscytology-primary noninvasive urothelial neoplasmscytology-secondary neoplasmsdiverticula,  duplicationdysplasiaectopic prostateembryology,  emphysematous cystitis,  endocervicosis,  endometriosis,  endophytic carcinoma,  endosalpingiosis,  eosinophilic cystitis,  exstrophy

F-N: features to report-cystectomyfeatures to report-TURBTfibroepithelial polyp,  flat hyperplasia,  flat lesions with atypia of unknown significance,  flat lesions with reactive atypia,  follicular cystitis,  frozen sectionsgastrointestinal stromal tumor/GIST,  germ cell tumor,  granulomatous cystitis,  grossinghemangioma,  hemorrhagic cystitis,  hepatoid adenocarcinomahigh grade papillary carcinoma,  hypoplasiainflammatory myofibroblastic tumor,  interstitial cystitis,  intestinal metaplasia,  invasive urothelial carcinoma-generalinverted urothelial papillomalarge cell neuroendocrine carcinoma,  leiomyoma,  leiomyosarcoma,  lithiasis,  low grade papillary carcinoma,  lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma,  lymphoma,  lymphoma-like carcinoma,  malakoplakia,  melanoma,  metastasesmicrocystic carcinoma,  micropapillary carcinoma,  nephrogenic metaplasia,  nested carcinoma,  neurofibroma,  normal anatomy,  normal histology

O-Z: obstruction,  osteosarcoma,  papillary hyperplasia,  papillary neoplasm of low malignant potential,  paraganglioma,  patent urachusperivascular epithelioid cell tumor,  persistent cloacaplasmacytoid carcinoma,  plasmacytoma,  polypoid / papillary cystitis,  postoperative granulomas,  postoperative spindle cell nodule,  prostatic adenocarcinomaprostatic-type polyp,  pseudocarcinomatous epithelial hyperplasia,  radiation cystitis,  rhabdoid carcinoma,  rhabdomyosarcoma,  sarcomatoid carcinoma,  schistosomiasis,  signet ring adenocarcinomasmall cell carcinomasolitary fibrous tumor,  squamous cell carcinomasquamous metaplasiastagingTamm-Horsfall protein,  treatment effect,  undifferentiated carcinoma-generalundifferentiated-large cellundifferentiated carcinoma-osteoclast richurachal adenocarcinomaurachal lesions,  urachal sarcomaurinary diversion / neobladderurothelial carcinoma with glandular differentiation,  urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiationurothelial carcinoma with trophoblastic differentiationurothelial papilloma,  villous adenomaWHO/ISUP classification of invasive bladder carcinomaWHO/ISUP classification of urothelial nonneplastic lesions,  xanthogranulomatous cystitis

Primary references
top

AJCC Cancer Staging Manual (7th ed)
Eble: Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs, 2004
Murphy: Tumors of the Kidney and Bladder (AFIP Atlas of Tumor Pathology, Series 3, Vol 11); 1994
Murphy: Tumors of the Kidney Bladder and Related Urinary Structures (AFIP Atlas of Tumor Pathology, 4th Series, Vol 1); 2004
Websites: Johns Hopkins Cytopathology Tutorial ,  Johns Hopkins WHO/ISUP Tutorial website,  PathoPic,  Webpathology.com

Recent Bladder / GU pathology books

Amin: 2013

Bostwick: 2014

Cheng: 2012

Dogra: 2012

Eble: 2004

Epstein: 2014


Gordetsky: 2013

Haber: 2010

Humphrey: 2013

Koss: 2012

Murphy: 2004

Zhou: 2012


Click here for other Bladder / GU Pathology books


End of Bladder chapter


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